1. Positive Aircraft Control
Positive aircraft control mean the pilot is always in control of the airplane. During all maneuvers, the aircraft should appropriately respond to all of the pilot's control inputs in a manner that ensures safe flight. The pilot should always lead the airplane, anticipating the outcome of his/her actions and planning ahead. (Do not let the airplane fly you)
2. Positive Exchange of the aircraft flight controls procedure
There must always be a clear understanding between the student and flight instructor of who has the control of the airplane. Prior to any dual training flight, a briefing should be conducted that includes the procedure for the exchange of flight controls. This is a 3-Step procedure:
- Instructor: "You have the flight controls"
- Student: "I have the flight controls"
- Instructor: "You have the flight controls"
Part of this procedure should be a visual check to make sure that the other person actually has the flight controls. This procedure can also be initiated by the instructor by taking the flight controls at any moment and say "I have the flight controls". There should NEVER be any doubt of who is flying the airplane.
3. Stall/Spin Awareness
The direct cause of stalls is an excessive angle of attack; the low airspeed is not necessary to produce a stall (although related). There are many numbers of flight maneuvers that may produce an increase in the wing's angle of attack, but the stall does not occur until that critical angle of attack is reached (16/20 degrees). A stall is necessary for a spin to occur, so avoiding stalls will prevent spins.
The most common situations where stalls/spins most often accidentally occur are:
- Just after takeoff
- Just before touchdown
- While practicing stalls
4. Collision Avoidance
All pilots must be alert of MAC and near MAC. The concept of "See and Avoid" requires that vigilance shall be maintained at all times by each person operating and aircraft regardless of whether the operation is conducted under IFR or VFR. Most MAC accidents and reported near MAC incidents occur in good VFR weather conditions and during the hours of daylight. The "See and Avoid" concept relies on knowledge of the limitations of the human eye, and the use of proper visual scanning techniques to help compensate for these limitations. The use of clearing procedures is a very important tool for avoiding a collision when practicing maneuvers.
Wake turbulence from larger aircraft can impose rolling moments exceeding the roll-control authority of the encountering aircraft, and it can also damage aircraft components and equipment if encountered at close range. A pilot must envision the locations of the vortex wake and adjust the flightpath accordingly. Two counter-rotating cylindrical vortices are created after the roll-up is complete. Most of the energy is within a few feet of the center of each vortex, but a region of within about 100 feet should be avoided. The strength of the vortex is governed by the weight, speed, and shape of the wing. It can also be affected by the change in wing configurations. The greatest vortex strength occurs when the generating aircraft is heavy, clean, and slow.
Landing behind a larger aircraft that is landing on the same or close parallel runway: Stay above the aircraft's final approach flightpath. Note the airplane's touchdown point and land beyond it.
Landing behind a larger aircraft that is landing on a crossing runway: Cross above the airplane's flight path
Landing behind a larger aircraft that is departing on the same runway: Note the airplane's rotation point and land well prior that point.
Landing behind a larger aircraft that is departing on a crossing runway: Note the aircraft's rotation point; if that point is past the intersection, land prior to that intersection, if not, avoid flying below the aircraft's flight path, and be ready to abandon the approach if landing is not assured well before reaching the intersection.
Departing behind a larger aircraft that is also departing: Note the aircraft's rotation point and rotate prior to it. Continue to climb and stay upwind and above the aircraft's flightpath.
Departing/landing behind a larger airctaft that just landed/touch-and-go/low approach/go-around: Vortices settle and move laterally near the ground, so the vortex hazard may exist along the runway. You should wait an interval of at least 2 minutes before takeoff or land.
LAHSO are an ATC procedure intended to increase airport capacity without compromising safety. LAHSO include landing and holding short of: An intesecting runway, and intersecting taxiway, or other designated point on a runway. LAHSO are optional; pilots have the authority to decline a LAHSO clearence. The safety and operation of the aircraft remain the pilot's responsibility, so pilot are expected to decline a LAHSO clearence if they determine (or not sure) if it will compromise safety. If you DO accept a LAHSO clearance, you should fully read back the clearance and COMPLY with it. LAHSO can only be conducted when at least basic VFR conditions (minimum ceiling of 1,000 feet and visibility of 3 SM) Student Pilots should NOT participate in the LAHSO program.
A runway incursion is any occurrence at an airport involving and aircraft, vehicle, person, or object on the ground that creates a collision hazard or results in a loss of separation with an aircraft taking off, landing, or intending to land. The three major areas contributing to runway incursions are: Communications, Airport Knowledge, and Cockpit Procedures for maintaining orientation.
Some practices that help minimize runway incursion are:
- Read back all runway/taxiway crossing and/or holding instructions
- Review airport layouts prior taxi and/or before landing if able
- Review NOTAMs for up-to-date information
- Be familiar with airport signs and markings
- When unsure of taxi route, ask for progressive taxi
- Check for traffic before crossing or entering any runway or taxiway
- When landing, clear the runway ASAP
- Use proper phraseology and good radio discipline at all times
- Write down complex taxi instructions
8. Controlled Flight into Terrain (CFIT)
CFIT occurs when an airworthy aircraft is flown, under the control of a quialified pilot, into terrain, water or obstacles, normally without knowledge by the crew. Most CFIT involve fatalities due the element of surprise (the lack of awareness from the crew prevents them from reducing speed, modified the fligth path, etc, to minimize the impact forces). Whiel CFIT are typically asociated with IFR operations in mountainous areas, they can happen to aircraft operating under VFR or IFR, over all kinds of terrain, and at any time of day or night. The main cause of CFIT is the Crew's loss of situational awareness. (High workload conditions, really low workload conditions, etc) To avoid CFIT maintain situational awareness all the time! know where you are, know the MSA of the area, cross-check information, etc.
|Detect||the fact that a change has occured|
|Estimate||the need to counter or react to that change|
|Choose||the desirable outcome for the success of the flight|
|Identify||the actions which could control the change|
|Do||the identified actions to adapt to the change|
|Evaluate||the effect of the action|
During each flight, decisions must be made regaring events involving interactions between the four risk elements:
- The Pilot in Command
- The Airplane
- The Environment
- The Operation
The decision-making process involves an evaluation of each of these risk elements to achieve an accurate perception of the flight situation. The ability to make effective decisions depends on a number of factors; one can learn to recognize those factors that can be managed, and learn skills to improve decision-making ability and judgment. Prior to any flight, pilot fitness should be assesed the same as the airplane's airworthiness is evaluated:
|Illness||Do I have any simptoms?|
|Medication||Have I been taking prescription or over-the-counter drugs?|
|Stress||Am I under psychological pressure on the job? financial matters? family?|
|Alcohol||Have I been drinking within 8, 24 hs? Hangover?|
|Fatigue||Am I tired and not adequately rested?|
|Eating||Am I adequately nourished?|
Attitude will also affect the quality of decisions; the five hazardous attitudes are:
|Anti-Authority:||"Don't tell me what to do"|
|Impulsivity:||"Do something quickly"|
|Invulnerability:||"It won't happen to me"|
|Macho:||"I can do it"|
|Resignation:||"What's the use"|
10. Wire Strike Avoidance
Antenna towers, high-voltage power lines, or the supporting structures of these lines may not be readily visible and the wires may be virtually impossible to see under certain conditions. May power lines do not required notice to FAA and, therefore are not marked and/or lighted. All pilots are cautioned to remain extremely vigilant for these hazards during the approach and landing phase, and when off-airport emergency landings.
Checklists are the foundation of pilot standarization and cockpit safety. The help ensure that critical items necessary for the safe operation of the aircraft are not overlooked or forgotten. However, used them as a tool to help you cross-check, not to tell you what to do (you should be able to function without them)
The FAA may issue a NOTAM to establish TFR:
- To protect persons and property from a hazard associated with an incident on the surface
- To provide a safe environment for the operation of disaster relief aircraft
- To protect airspace above events generating a high degree of public interest
- To protect public figures
- To provide a safe environment for space agency operations.
An FDC NOTAM will be issued containing:
- Beginning with the phrase "Flight Restrictions"
- Extension (Horizontal/Vertical)
- Time period
- Responsible Agency
- Other related information
You should check for TFRs on every flight!! Check http://www.tfr.gov for TFRS.
13. Special Use Airspace (SUA)
Restricted: Airspace within which flight, while not wholly prohibited, is subject to restrictions. Restricted areas denote the existence of unusual, often invisible hazards to aircraft such as artillery firing, aerial gunnery, or guided missiles. (Published in charts)
Prohibited: Airspace within which flight is prohibited. Such areas are established for security or other reasons of national welfare. (Published in charts)
Warning: Airspace of defined dimensions, extending from 3 NM outward of the coast of the U.S., that contains activity that may be hazardous to nonparticipating pilots. The purpose of a warning area is to warn nonparticipating pilots of the potential danger. A warning area may be located over domestic or international waters or both. (Published in charts)
MOA: Airspace established to separate certain military training activities from IFR traffic. VFR aircraft should use caution while operating within an active MOA. (Published in charts)
Alert: Depicted on aeronautical charts to inform nonparticipating pilots of areas that may contain a high volume of pilot training or an unusual type of aerial activity. (Published in charts)
Controlled Firing: Areas containing activities which, if not conducted in a controlled environment, could be hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft. These activities are suspended immediately when spotter aircraft, radar, or ground lockout positions indicate an aircraft might be approaching the area. (NOT in charts)